Welcome to know Renaissance in Kerala. Here we covered almost a to z of this topic which you can ensure 100 % marks from Renaissance kerala topic. Along with Kerala history Renaissance in kerala is also very important part in Kerala PSC exams. This complete article will definitely help you answer all the question from Renaissance.
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Kerala Renaissance Leaders
Find the list of kerala renaissance leaders during the mid 80’s and 90’s. We included all the important lists and their activities as a social reformer.
Sree Narayana Guru (1856 – 1928)
- Spiritual Leader, Social reformer, and Poet
- Guru was born into an Ezhava family in chempazhanthi near thiruvananthapuram.
- Lead Reform movement in Kerala, revolted against casteism and worked on propagating new values of freedom in spirituality and of social equality, thereby transforming the Kerala society.
- Narayana Guru is revered for his Vedic knowledge, poetic proficiency
- One of the most successful social reformers who tackled caste issues in India
- Consecrated Siva Lingam at Aruvippuram in 1888 “I installed my siva; not a Brahmin siva.”
- Formed ‘Vaavoottu Yogam’ at aruvippuram –prototype of SNDP
- Started SNDP IN 1903 along with Kumaran Asan(first secretary)
- He chose Sivagiri for his spiritual practice ‘ with Amba’ became his deity
- Started a Sanskrit school in Varkala.
- Temples were built at different places – Thrissur, Kannur, Anchuthengu, Tellicherry, Calicut, Mangalore.
- In 1913, he founded the Advaita Ashram at Aluva. Om Sahodaryam Sarvatra became the motto of the new Ashram.
- Famous slogan of ‘Oru jaathi,oru matham ,oru daivam manushyanu’ was given at a meeting at Aluva ashram
- Visited Sri Lanka many times.
- On 14 June 1927 Sree Narayana Guru consecrated a mirror – with the message “Om shanti” written on the surface – in a temple in Kalavankode.
- Gurudevan participated in the anniversary of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam held at Palluruthy in 1927
- Guru died on 20th September 1928
Sahodaran Ayyappan ( 1890 – 1968)
- Social reformer & Journalist
- Born at Cherayi near Ernakulam
- Started an organization called ‘Vidya poshini’
- Studied Sanskrit & history at university college Tvpm
- Started ‘’Samastha Kera Sahodara Sangham’ in 1917.and ‘Mishra bhojana Prasthanam’
- Started a magazine (later newspaper)named’ SAHODARAN’
- Another magazine named ‘YUKTHIVADI’ was started along with M.C Joseph, C.Krishnan, C.V Kunjiraman etc.
- ‘VELAKKARAN’ another newspaper started by Ayyappan
- Failed 2 times but won at 3rd time to legislative assembly of Kochi
- Elected as president of SNDP in 1938
- Started socialist party
- Elected as a minister in various ministries of Kochi & Thiru-Kochi.
- Concentrated in social activities in later stages of life
- Died in 1968 March 8
- Slogan ‘All men are brothers’
- Published the biography of V.I Lenin for the first time in Malayalam in ‘SAHODARAN’
Mannathu Padmanabhan(1878 – 1970)(Bharatha kesari)
- Writer, Orator, Teacher, Social reformer and a Politician.
- Born at perunna near changanassery Became teacher at the age of 15 Turned into lawyer
- Started ‘Nayar Samudaya Bhrithya Jana Sangham’ in 1914
- Established Nair Service Society(NSS) in 1915 Constructed schools and colleges throughout Kerala
- Worked against many social evils that marred the Nair caste.
- Worked together with many other leaders in social movements like Vaikom satyagraha, guruvayoor satyagraha and for the betterment of lower caste Hindus
- Lead ‘savarna jaadha’ to Tvpm to sympathize with guruvayoor satyagraha
K .Kelappan(18901971)(Kerala Gandhi)
- Social reformer, Teacher Born at Moodadi in Kannur
- Worked actively in Congress in ponnani taluk
- Participated in vaikom satyagraha,& guruvayoor satyagraha Became Editor of ‘Mathrubhumi’ Daily
- Leader of Salt satyagraha in Kerala
- He was the K.P.C.C president when India got Freeddom.chairman of Kerala unification committee
- Concentrated in “sarvodaya’’ activities in later life Died in 1971 October 6th
Ayyankaali(1863 – 1941)
- Social reformer, Champion of the Downtrodden
- Born at Venganoor near Thiruvananthapuram
- Succeeded in issuing orders permitting admission to children of lower caste in schools
- First lower caste man to be selected to Sree moolam praja sabhathe then legislative assembly. Started ‘Saadhu Jana Paripaalana Sangham’ in 1907 later became Pulaya Mahasabha Fought steadfastly for uplifting the social and educational status of lower caste Hindus.
- Met Gandhiji in 1938 which helped to get nationwide attraction his struggles Gandhiji called him ‘’Pulaya Raajavu’’
- Died on June 18th, 1941
Dr .Palpu (1863 – 1950)
- Physician, Social reformer, Educational activist
- Born in Thiruvananthapuram
- Forced to go to Madras for medical studies even though got admission in Kerala for medicine in 1884.
- Didn’t get a job in Kerala as he was from the Ezhava community, so went to Mysore and worked there.
- Returned to Travancore and was behind ‘Ezhava Memorial’ –a mass petition given to authorities for securing equal rights to backward classes also in the educational sector and govt jobs(13,176 persons signed)in 1896 submitted to Travancore Raja Vishakom Thirunal.
- ‘’Treatment of thiyyas in Travancore’’ book by Dr.Palpu1896
- Met Swami Vivekananda at Mysore and upon his advice got connected with Narayana Guru and worked with him for the reform movements
Chattambi Swamikal(1853 – 1924)
- Social reformer, Spiritual leader, Writer
- Born at kannammoola near Thiruvananthapuram Orginal name –Kunjan Pillai(Chattambi means leader)
- Fought against social evils and Brahminical hegemony in a spiritual way. Wrote many books related to language, history, spirituality etc.
- Earned respect from Swami Vivekananda when they met Died at panmana on may 5th 1924 in Kollam district.
Vakkom Abdul Khader Maulavi (1873 – 1932)
- Social reformer, Religious leader
- Well versed in Malayalam, Tamil, Arabic, Urdu, Persian, and Sanskrit
- Started the newspaper ‘swadeshabhimani’(Ramakrishna Pillai became editor in 1906)
- Submitted petition to the raja of Travancore regarding reforms in the education of Muslim society.
- Started ‘Islamia ‘publishing house Died on 1932
C.Krishnan(1867 – 1938)
- Lawyer, Social activist, Politician
- Born at Chaavakkad near Guruvayoor Editor of newspaper ‘KeralSanchari’
- Bought the newspaper ‘Mithavaadi’ from moorkkoth kumaran in 1913 (so he was later known as Mithvaadi krishnan)
- ‘Veena poovu’ the famous poem of Kumaran aasan was first published in ‘Mitha vaadi’
- Wrote editorial about Russian revolution in 1917
- Converted to Buddhism stating that being a caste in Hinduism was problem of thiyyas Organized a Buddhist conclave in Calicut
- Foremost among the leaders of atheist movement in Kerala Died on 1938 nov 29th
Muhammed Abdurahman (1898 – 1945) (Subash Chandrabose of Kerala)
- Born at kodungallor
- Participated in Khilafath movement, salt satyagraha Started ‘Alameen’ newspaper
- Died on 1945
K.P. Kesava Menon(1886 – 1978)
- Politician, Social reformer, Diplomat, Writer, Lawyer
- Got ‘padmavibhooshan’
- Involved in noncooperation movement Participated In vaikom sathyagraha
- Started ‘Mathrubhumi’ newspaper in 1923 Indian high commissioner to Srilanka in 1951
- ‘Kazhinja kaalam’autobiography by K.P.Keasava Menon
- Bilathi visesham, yesu devan,jeevitha chinthakal are his works
A.K. Gopalan(1904 – 1977) (paavangalude padathalavan)
- Politician, Social reformer
- Born at peralassery near Thalassery
- Most popular politician Kerala has ever seen.
- Participated in Salt sathyagraha,guruvayoor sathyagraha(volunteer captain) Joined congress socialist party and worked along with EMS
- Lead ‘pattini jaadha’ to Madras and ‘thiruvithankoore jaadha’ to thiruvananthapuram Became leader of opposition in Indian Parliament
- ‘’Njaan oru puthiya lokam kandu’’ is a literary work by him Died on March 21st 1977
‘Swadeshabhimani’Ramakrishna Pillai (1878 – 1916)
- Journalist, Social activist, Writer
- Born at Neyyatinkara near Tvpm Editor of journal ‘Malayali’
- Became chief editor of ‘Swadeshabhimani’ newspaper in 1906 Send on exile in 1910
- Died on 1916
V.T Bhattathirippadu (1898 – 1982)
- Social reformer, Playwright
- Born at Mezhathoor near ponnani
- Fought against the superstitions and bad customs of Brahmin caste
- Encouraged widow marriage, atheism.
- Adukkalayil ninnu arangathekku, kainchntha are his works.
Events Happened on Renaissance Kerala
Kerala has undergone sweeping changes in every field of life- social, cultural, political economic, scientifical educational etc after 1850’s. So here are some of the main lists of events happened because of Renaissance in Kerala.
During the Renaissance, Kerala period noticed big change in social, education, political and cultural life of peoples. We can expect questions based on this along with Current Affairs in PSC exams.
- 1834-Swathi thirunal started English school later converted to University college in Thiruvananthapuram
- 1847-‘Rajya samaacharam-first newspaper in Malayalam from Thalassery basil mission
- 1867- textbook committee under Aayilya thirunaal of Travancore chaired by Annaji Raayar first and after his death keral varma valiy koyi thampuran for qualitative improvement in curriculum of schools
- 1888–Aruvippuram ‘Siva Idol ‘consecration by Narayan Guru
- 1891-Malayali memorial
- 1896-Ezhava memorial
- 1903-Formation of SNDP Yogam
- 1905-‘Swadeshabhimani’ newspaper was started BY Vakkom Abdul Khader
- 1907-Formation of ‘Saadhu Jana Paripalana yogam’ by Ayyankaali
- 1910– Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai was sent on exile
- 1914-Bhasha parishkarana committee Chaired by Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer & T.K Krishna Menon
- 1915-Formation of NSS(Nair Service Society )by Mannathu Padmanabhan
- 1920– Gandhiji visited Kerala for the first time
- 1921– Malabar Rebellion & Wagon tragedy & First All Kerala Congress Meeting at Ottappalam in Palakkad
- 1924-Vaikom Satyagraha
- 1925– Gandhiji-Sree Narayana Guru Meeting
- 1931-32-Guruvayur satyagraha
- 1932-Nivarthana Prakshobhanam
- 1936-Nov12-Temple Entry Proclamation in Travancore by Chithira thirunaal Balarama varma, & Electricity agitation in Thrissur against privatization
- 1937-Travancore University established (now Kerala University)
- 1938- Travancore state Congress was formed, Raajadhani march lead by Akkamma Cheriyan & Inauguration of High court of Kochi
- 1939– Formation of the Communist party
- 1941-Kayyoor Riot
- 1946-Punnapra-Vayalar agitation
- 1947-48- Paaliyam satyagraha
- 1949– Unification of Princely states of Travancore & Kochi
- 1956– Nov 1-State of Kerala was formed
Explanation of Renaissance Kerala Events
Find some of the important events that boosts Renaissance in kerala during the 80’s and 90’s. Those will help you get minimum 2 marks in Kerala PSC and related exams. We can expect at least 2 questions from renaissance kerala topic, and we covered almost all the points on renaissance here.
Attingal Rebellion – 1721
- First organized rebellion in India against the British rule
- Occurred in anchuthengu near attingal (now in Thiruvananthapuram district).
- Tussle between British merchants and native mechants.
- Anchuthengu fort was kept under siege for six months by the rebels .
- In 1722 a pact was signed between Attingal Rani and British.
Kurichya Rebellion 1812
- It was farmers rebellion against the British. It was an after effect of pazhassi rebellion that happened earlier.
- Kurichyas was a sect in adivasis of Malabar.They and their leader Tahalakkal chandu supported pazhassi .
- British oppressed them with taxing out huge revenue from the poor farmers.
- Farmers protested violently ,but the rebellion was comp letely suppressed by the British.
Channar rebellion(Melmundu Samaram) – 1859
- It happened in Travancore in which Channar(a lower caste according to Hindu caste system) ladies protested to wear blouse which was not allowed at that time.
- On july 26th 1859 uthram thirunal made a proclamation by which all ladies irrespective of caste were allowed to wear blouse
Malayali memorial – 1891
- A mass petition filed to Sree Moolam thirunal of Travancore which sought for appointment of malayalees in higher offfial posts.
- Leaders were C.V Raman pillai,K.P Sankara Menon,K.P.Padmanabha menon,G.P.Pillai etc
Ezhava Memorial – 1896
- A mass petition filed to Sree moolam thirunal under the leadership of Dr Palpu ,who was a medical graduate .
- Appointment of lower caste people in government posts was the main point in the petition.
- Again in 1900 they gave a mass petition to Lord Curzon,Viceroy ,when he came to Travancore. But nothing fructified.
Malabar Rebellion – 1921
- Khilafat movement ,which was a pan islamist movement against the British got roots in Malabar also.
- Rebellion started gainst the British and also the native land lords.
- It mainly happened in eranad & valluvanad taluks of Malabar.
- Variyan kunnath kunjahammed haji,seethikoya,aali musaliyar are the prominent leaders
- Death toll was heavy on both sides.
- Rebellion was brutally suppressed ,about 10,000 people lost their lives.
Wagon Tragedy 1921 ,Nov 10
- Part of Malabar rebellion
- Arrested rebels transported from Tirur Railway station to Bellary jail in a goods train named M.S.L.V 1711.
- More than ninety people were transported in a single wagon. It was thickly congested so they could not even breath.
- 64 people was found dead when the wagon reached podanoor near Coimbatore and 8 more died in hospital.
- Wagon with dead bodies was returned back to Tirur. Wagon Tragedy memorial town hall is now at Tirur ,Malappuram District.
- It was one of the most gruesome incidents during the freedom struggle.
Vaikom Satyagraha (1924–25)
- It was in Travancore, against untouchability in Hindu society. The movement was centered at the Shiva temple at Vaikom, near Kottayam.
- Started on 1924 march 30th.
- Leaders of the sathyagrha are T. K. Madhavan ,K.Kelappan, K. P. Kesava Menon,kuroor neelakantan namboothirippad,mannathu padmanabhan,T.R Krishnas wami Iyer .
- Non Hindus like barrister George Joseph, Bhajematharam Mathunni and Abdul Rahman (the Editor inChief of The Young India) came forward to offer Satyagraha
- Gandhiji visited vaikom during the struggle
- The streets in the temple area were opened to all people (except the eastern path)on nov 23,1925.
- In 1928 a proclamation was made in Travancore by which all temple paths were opened for all people.
Salt Sathyagraha in Kerala – 1930
- Payyannur in kannur district was the centre of salt sathyagraha in Kerala
- Leaders were K.Kelappan,T.R krishnaswamy Iyer,P.krishna pillai etc
Guruvayoor Sathyagraha 1931 – 32
- The struggle was to provide access to Sree Krisna temple at Guruvayoor for all Hindus.
- Started by K.P.C.C under the Leadership of K.Kelappan.
- A.K .Gopalan,mannathu padmanbhan were leaders of the struggle.
- Sathyagraha was called off as per the direction of Gandhiji.
- Nivarthana struggle (Nivarthana Prakshobham)
- It was joint struggle by Hindu backward classes,Muslims &christians to achieve prper representation in legislative assemblies
Kayyoor Riot – 1941
- Kayyoor is a village in kasargod district
- Communist party organized peasents and acted against land lrds and British govt.
- One policeman was killed when they tried to stop a procession organized by the party.
- Police captured 61 workers and 4 of them were hanged to death on march 29th 1943.
- EK Naynar,AV Kunjambu etc participated in the struggle
Punnapra –vayalar rebellion (1946)
- In Travancore a bill for extending the official period of Diwan to 5 more years.
- Communist party protested against the move
- Police killed almost 200 people on October. Another 280 people killed in protest organised against the first attack.
- It was the bloodiest agitation in history of modern kerala.
- Famous slogan ‘American Model Arabikkadalil’’ used in this agitation
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The Renaissance Kerala also known as Navodhanam or Reformation. During that time significant changes performed which changed entire cultural, social respects for all religions or casts. You can also download Latest Current Affairs PDF file here.